Statistics show that about 1.52 million people get cancer in China every year, and about 1.05 million people die from cancer.Cancer is now one of the leading causes of death that threaten human health.Therefore, the research on cancer has become a hot spot in the field of nutrition and medicine.Several studies in recent years have shown that broccoli is effective against breast and colorectal cancer, and that regular consumption of broccoli by healthy people can also help prevent cancer.Therefore, broccoli is known as the “rookie in cancer prevention”, and play a role in cancer prevention, is an important substance contained in broccoli sulforaphane (also known as “sulforaphane”).
How did the “rookie in cancer prevention” come into being
Open PubMed, the literature search database, and type “Sulforaphane” (the English name for Sulforaphane), and more than 1,500 papers appear.Sulforaphane is an effective inducer of protective enzymes, which can protect against the damage caused by carcinogenic compounds. Sulforaphane is the isothiocyanates with the most significant antioxidant, anticancer and anticancer activities found so far.So far, it has been recognized as the most active ingredient in vegetables with the highest anticancer activity.Epidemiology and in vivo tests have shown that sulforaphane in broccoli can effectively reduce the occurrence of liver cancer, lung cancer, stomach cancer, prostate cancer, breast cancer, rectal cancer, pancreatic cancer and other cancers.
There are three stages in the development of a tumour: pre-cancerous lesions in normal cells, further progression to carcinoma in situ, and finally metastasis.Pre-cancer damage is a key step to induce cancer cells. Carcinogens include chemical carcinogens and oxygen free radicals. These carcinogens pass through phase I metabolic enzymes (organisms have a complex network detoxification system, which can be summarized as two types of detoxification enzymes, phase I detoxification enzyme and phase II detoxification enzyme).These electrophilic groups and components can cause DNA damage and produce DNA admixtures.Under the condition of insufficient expression of phase II detoxification enzyme, chemical carcinogens will induce cell canceration. Therefore, inhibition of phase I detoxification enzyme is an important link to prevent carcinogenic effects of chemical carcinogens.Sulforaphane can exert its anticancer activity by inhibiting the expression of phase I detoxification enzyme and inducing the expression of phase II detoxification enzyme in vivo.At the same time, sulforaphane can also play a certain activity in DNA repair, inflammation elimination, bacteriostatic effect, antiviral effect, apoptosis and arrest of tumor cells.
The research results of domestic research institutions on the prevention and inhibition of cancer with broccoli extract sulforaphane have shown that both tumor cell experiments and animal experiments show that broccoli extract has significant anti-tumor effects.The results of tumor cell experiments showed that medium and high concentration of sulforaphane not only inhibited the growth and invasion of A549 lung cancer cells, SGC-7901 gastric cancer cells and PANC-1 pancreatic cancer cells, but also changed the cell cycle, induced DNA breakage, and induced the gradual apoptosis of the three tumor cells.The results of animal experiments confirmed that the tumor volume in the tumor-bearing nude mice inoculated with the above three tumor cells decreased significantly after the intervention of sulforaphane, and the tumor apoptosis was increased in the administration group and the prevention group, thus inhibiting the tumor growth.
1. Detoxification of Broccoli Extract
Hidden in broccoli sprouts is a secret to liver detoxification.Dr Pol Talalay, of Johns Hopkins University, found in broccoli an ingredient called sulforaphane (sulforaphane) that helps prevent cancer.Some of the chemicals absorbed by the body through respiration and diet turn into carcinogens in the body.The liver’s “detoxification enzymes” convert harmful substances in the body, including these carcinogens, into harmless substances.And sulforaphane activates this “detoxifying enzyme” and enhances its function, thus helping to inhibit cancer.In addition, broccoli extract can increase benzene excretion, improve airway sensitivity and prevent influenza.
2.Cosmetic effects (anti-saccharification, anti-carbonylation)
Recent studies have shown that the carbonylation of epidermal protein causes skin yellowing and accelerates skin aging. Broccoli extract and its thioglucoside components, including Glucoberteroin, Glucoerucin and Glucoosiberin, inhibit protein carbonylation.Therefore, broccoli sprouts extract can effectively resist skin aging and is expected to improve skin color changes with age.
Tyrosinase is an oxidase and a rate-limiting enzyme that regulates the production of melanin.It is present in plant and animal tissues and catalyzes the production of melanin, which is oxidized by tyrosine, as well as other pigments, such as the blackening of peeled or sliced potatoes exposed to air.Tyrosinase is found in the melanosomes of skin melanocytes.The experimental results showed that the inhibition rate of tyrosinase activity was higher and the melanin production rate decreased with the increase of the dose of broccoli bud.It can be seen that broccoli bud has outstanding whitening effect.
Another small study, conducted at Children’s Hospital of Massachusetts General Hospital, showed that sulforaphane improved some symptoms of autism spectrum disorder.In a study published in the October 13, 2014, issue of PNAS, researchers reported that study participants improved their behavioral and communication assessments in just four weeks.
Despite the fact that sulforaphane has been linked to the fight against cancer, only about 0.5 grams of sulforaphane are extracted per 1,000 grams of broccoli, and broccoli cooked at high temperatures loses most of its nutrients.Therefore, the treatment of cancer cannot be achieved by eating more broccoli alone, and the development of health products and drugs derived from broccoli extract is of more practical significance.Now with the approval of new food raw materials for broccoli extract, driven by strong market demand, relevant products are bound to show a more powerful market growth trend.
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